In general, all insecticides are registered and approved safe for use by Maine Board of Pesticides Control. Three intervention efforts that are most likely to be used for an outbreak in Maine are:
Btk is a naturally occurring soil bacteria and is not harmful to humans or other mammals, bees, birds, or fish when used according to label conditions.
Pheromones occur naturally, they are unique to each insect, and they trigger behavioral changes in members of the same species. Pheromones pose no risk to humans or other animals. They are used to lure or attract insects to traps, and they can be used to disrupt mating cycles. Spruce budworm pheromones do not kill insects.
Mimic (active ingredient is tebufenozide) is an insect growth regulator that larvae eat. Mimic imitates a natural insect hormone that causes the developing caterpillars to molt prematurely as the larvae go through their growth stages. The caterpillars then quickly stop feeding and die. It is harmless to humans or other mammals, bees, birds, or fish when used according to strict label conditions.