Because the spruce budworm outbreak will have a substantial impact on forest composition and structure over large areas, the next outbreak will likely have an influence on wildlife habitat over a long period of time. For example, mature spruce-fir stands are vital to deer wintering areas, so a decrease in DWA areas due to an SBW outbreak are likely to lead to higher winter mortality in deer (as well as impact other species associated with mature, softwood-dominated canopies such as Candada lynx). Although insecticide spraying for SBW will have little or no direct impact on lynx, snowshoe hare, or moose, snowshoe hare need cover from predators, which is best provided by regenerating young softwoods (15 to 40 years old). The interface between mature timber and regenerating softwood stands may facilitate the ability of Canada lynx to hunt snowshoe hares. On the plus side for moose, if areas are heavily salvage logged, the increased area of early successional habitat will increase available moose browse.